The Romans called the region Lucania, and this name is also still used today, apart from Basilicata. The current name is derived from the Byzantine word “basilikos“, which was a name used for the provincial lords who ruled here in the 9th and 10th century. The hilly highland area has mainly sedimented soils (clay, sandstone and limestone), and there are many rivers flowing through the area. Basilicata is surrounded and enclosed by the three regions Apulia, Calabria and Campania. There are only two relatively short stretches of coastline on the Tyrrhenian and the Ionian seas. The vineyards are divided into many thousands of tiny parcels of land, many less than a hectare in extent. Most of the vineyards are located in river valleys in the East, close to Matera, and on the coastal plain on the Ionian sea around Metaponto. The Greeks planted the predecessor of the currently dominant red grape Aglianico here in the 6th century BC, other important red varieties are Aleatico, Bombino Nero, Ciliegiolo, Malvasia Nera and Sangiovese. The most important white varieties are Asprinio, Bombino Bianco, Fiano, Moscato Bianco and Trebbiano.